Recovery / Resilience after an Incident
Definitions and Time Period
- Recovery phase planning begins during intermediate phase of a response and extends post event until remediation is completed
- Concept officially introduced in Presidential Policy Directive / PPD-8: National Preparedness (March 2011)
- Focuses on strengthening the security and resilience of the Nation through systematic preparation for the full range of 21st century hazards that threaten the security of the Nation, including acts of terrorism, cyber attacks, pandemics, and catastrophic natural disasters
- New component of the National Health Security Strategy (NHSS)
- NHSS is built on a foundation of community resilience - healthy individuals, families, and communities with access to health care and with the knowledge and resources to know what to do to care for themselves and others in both routine and emergency situations.
- Based on the "whole community" approach
- Recognizes that DHS/FEMA is only a part of the team, and not the entire emergency management team.
- FEMA and partners at the federal level
- State, local, tribal and territorial governmental partners
- Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) like faith-based, volunteer and non-profit groups
- The private sector and industry
- Most importantly, individuals, families, and communities
- Requires planning in advance.
- Addressed in many of the most recent planning documents
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Response During Late Phase
- Actions no longer represent a response to "emergency situation"
- Action objectives include cleanup and site recovery, work of reducing environmental radiation levels to acceptable levels
- Phase ends when all remediation actions have been completed
- Monitoring and treatment for late medical effects will also occur during the Recovery phase
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Useful Guidance about Recovery and Resilience
Specific for radiation incidents
- EPA PAG Manual for Interim Use, March 2013. See Chapter 4: Guidance for the Late Phase.
- Approach to Optimizing Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Terrorism Incidents, SC 5-1 (NCRP draft in progress), National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD.
- Coleman CN, Blumenthal DJ, Casto CA, Alfant M, Simon SL, Remick AL, Gepford HJ, Bowman T, Telfer JL, Blumenthal PM, Noska MA, Recovery and Resilience After a Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Medical Decision Model for Managing an Effective, Timely, and Balanced Response, Dis Med Pub Health Prep 2013;7(2),2013. [PubMed Citation]
- Rad Resilient City: a Local Planning Tool to Save Lives Following a Nuclear Detonation (UPMC Center for Health Security)
- Application of the Commission's Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long-term Contaminated Areas after a Nuclear Accident or a Radiation Emergency, ICRP Publication 111, Ann ICRP 39 (3), 2009. (Free version, PDF - 659 KB)
- Planning Guidance for Response to a Nuclear Detonation (PDF - 2.62 MB) Second Edition, 6/2010, National Security Staff
- Planning Guidance for Protection and Recovery Following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents (PDF - 519 KB) (DHS/FEMA, published in Federal Register, August 1, 2008, Z-RIN 1660-ZA02)
- Preparing to Save Lives and Recover after a Nuclear Detonation: Implications for US Policy, Univ of Pittsburgh Center for Biosecurity, June 2010
- Eraker E, Clean up after a radiological attack, The Nonproliferation Review, Fall/Winter, 2004
- Disposal of Waste as Clean Up of Large Areas Contaminated as a Result of a Nuclear Accident, IAEA Technical Report Series No. 330.
- Resilience Resources for Emergency Response (OSHA)
- Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 1980 (Wikipedia)
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