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You are here: Home > Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in a Radiation Emergency > PPE Image Gallery: Respiratory Protective Equipment - Civilian


 
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PPE Image Gallery: Respiratory Protective Equipment - Civilian


Respiratory PPE - Civilian

Respirator Type Comments
Half mask negative-pressure air-purifying respirator

Air-purifying respirator (APR)1
  • Disposable
  • Half mask
  • Negative-pressure
  • Assigned Protection Factor (APF): 10
  • Fit Testing Required? Yes
Air-purifying respirator (APR), disposable

Key Features
  • Usually half mask, negative-pressure particulate respirator
  • Inspiratory effort of wearer draws air through filter
  • Filter comprises all or a significant portion of the facepiece
  • Airborne particles removed as inspired air passes through filter
  • NIOSH-certified CBRN air-purifying respirators with HEPA or P-100 filters provide the minimum acceptable level of protection against inhalation of particles for personnel working in environments likely to be contaminated with radioactive materials
Advantages
  • Light weight
  • Does not restrict mobility
  • Low cost (compared to other respirators)
Disadvantages
  • Does not supply oxygen (cannot be used in low oxygen environments)
  • May only be used when air contaminant level is below the concentration limits of the filter
  • Fit testing required
  • Some contaminated air will leak into facepiece
  • Half mask models do not provide adequate eye protection
  • Full facepiece models may fog up during use
  • Communication can be difficult
Elastomeric  half mask negative-pressure air-purifying respirator

Air-purifying respirator (APR)1
  • Reusable
  • Elastomeric
  • Half mask
  • Negative-pressure
  • Assigned Protection Factor (APF): 10
  • Fit Testing Required? Yes
Air-purifying respirator (APR), reusable

Key Features
  • Elastic facepiece worn over mouth and nose
  • Inspiratory effort of wearer draws ambient air through filter(s) before air is inhaled
  • Provides increased protection when used with filters, cartridges, or canisters that remove specific contaminants
Advantages
  • Comparatively light weight
  • Does not restrict mobility
  • Relatively low cost (compared to other respirators)
Disadvantages
  • Does not supply oxygen (cannot be used in low oxygen environments)
  • May only be used when air contaminant level is below the concentration limits of the filter(s)
  • Fit testing required
  • Some contaminated air can leak into facepiece
  • Half mask models do not provide adequate eye protection
  • Communication can be difficult
Elastomeric  full facepiece negative-pressure air-purifying respirator

Air-purifying respirator (APR)1
  • Reusable
  • Elastomeric
  • Full facepiece
  • Negative-pressure
  • Assigned Protection Factor (APF): 50
  • Fit Testing Required? Yes
Air-purifying respirator (APR), reusable

Key Features
  • Elastic facepiece covers entire face
  • Inspiratory effort of wearer draws ambient air through filter(s) before air is inhaled
  • Provides increased protection when used with filters, cartridges, or canisters that remove specific contaminants
Advantages
  • Comparatively light weight
  • Does not restrict mobility
  • Provides both respiratory and eye protection
Disadvantages
  • Does not supply oxygen (cannot be used in low oxygen environments)
  • May only be used when air contaminant level is below the concentration limits of the filter(s)
  • Fit testing required
  • Some contaminated air can leak into facepiece
  • Communication can be difficult
Loose-Fitting Powered Air-purifying Respirator (PAPR)

Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR)1
  • Loose-fitting
  • Assigned Protection Factor (APF): 25
  • Fit Testing Required? No
Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR)

Key Features
  • Battery powered blower forces contaminated ambient air through air-purifying filters
  • Purified air delivered under positive-pressure to facepiece mask, helmet, or hood
  • Worn when disposable and reusable half mask negative-pressure air-purifying respirators do not provide adequate protection
Advantages
  • Provides greater protection than non-powered negative-pressure air-purifying respirators
  • More comfortable to wear and to breathe compared to non-powered negative-pressure air-purifying respirators
  • Air delivery to facepiece mask, helmet, or hood ensures that leakage of contaminated air is usually outward
  • Fit testing not required
  • Various chemical cartridges or canisters available to eliminate chemicals including organic vapors and acid gases
  • Provides both respiratory and eye protection
Disadvantages
  • Bulky and noisy
  • Battery dependent
  • Is not a true positive-pressure device (i.e., some leakage of contaminated air into facepiece mask, helmet, or hood can occur)
  • Communication can be difficult
Hooded, Powered Air-purifying Respirator (PAPR)

Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR)1
  • Hooded
  • Assigned Protection Factor (APF): 25
  • Fit Testing Required? No
Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR)

Key Features
  • Battery powered blower forces contaminated ambient air through air-purifying filters
  • Purified air delivered under positive-pressure to facepiece mask, helmet, or hood
  • Worn when disposable and reusable half mask negative-pressure air-purifying respirators do not provide adequate protection
Advantages
  • Provides greater protection than non-powered negative-pressure air-purifying respirators
  • More comfortable to wear and to breathe compared to non-powered negative-pressure air-purifying respirators
  • Air delivery to facepiece mask, helmet, or hood ensures that leakage of contaminated air is usually outward
  • Fit testing not required
  • Various chemical cartridges or canisters available to eliminate chemicals including organic vapors and acid gases
  • Provides both respiratory and eye protection
Disadvantages
  • Bulky and noisy
  • Battery dependent
  • Is not a true positive-pressure device (i.e., some leakage of contaminated air into facepiece mask, helmet, or hood can occur)
  • Communication can be difficult
Full facepiece Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) with an auxiliary Escape Bottle

Supplied-air respirator (SAR)1
  • Full facepiece
  • Assigned Protection Factor (APF): 1,000
  • Fit Testing Required? Yes

















Full facepiece Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) with an auxiliary Escape Bottle

Auxiliary escape respirator1
  • Assigned Protection Factor (APF): 10,000 (when used in "escape" mode)
  • Fit Testing Required? Yes
Supplied-air respirator (SAR)

Key Features
  • Compressed air delivered from a stationary source (located away from contaminated area) to a half or full facepiece mask via a hose
  • Worn when negative-pressure and powered air-purifying respirators do not provide adequate protection
Advantages
  • Provides high level respiratory protection
  • Provides positive pressure to mask so almost all leakage is outward
  • Less bulky and can be used for longer periods than self-contained breathing apparatus
  • May be easier for hospital personnel to use
  • Provides both respiratory and eye protection
Disadvantages
  • Length of air hose may limit mobility
  • Air hose may be a trip hazard
  • Clean source of breathing air required
  • Fit testing required
  • Immediately operable emergency escape respirator, escape hood, or escape mask is required
  • Communication can be difficult


Auxiliary escape respirator, escape hood, or escape mask

Key Features
  • Carried or worn in case of SAR failure
  • Protects wearer from breathing harmful gases, vapors, fumes, and dusts for a limited amount of time in emergency situations
  • Can be designed as an air-purifying escape respirator (APER) or a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) type respirator
  • APERs have a filter canister mounted on a hood to filter contaminants before air is inhaled
  • SCBA type escape respirators have an attached source of breathing air and a hood that provides a barrier against contaminated outside air
Full facepiece Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)

Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)1
  • Full facepiece
  • Assigned Protection Factor (APF): 10,000
    (in pressure demand mode)
  • Fit Testing Required? Yes
Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)

Key Features
  • Provides very pure, dry compressed air to full facepiece mask via a hose
  • Air is exhaled to environment
  • By law, must be worn whenever entering environments immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) or when information is inadequate to rule out IDLH atmosphere
Advantages
  • Provides highest level of respiratory protection
  • Several different types available depending on need
  • Improved mobility over Supplied-Air Respirators
  • Provides both respiratory and eye protection
Disadvantages
  • Heavy to wear
  • Limited oxygen supply limits duration of use
  • Fit testing required
  • Communication can be difficult
References:
  1. All images adapted from: Major Types of Air-purifying respirators, OSHA: Assigned Protection Factors for the Revised Respiratory Protection Standard. (PDF - 398 KB) (OSHA, 2009)
  2. CBRNE - Personal Protective Equipment. Huebner KD, Lavonas EJ, Arnold JL. (eMedicine)
  3. Guide for the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Emergency First Responders, 2nd Edition, Guide 102-06. (PDF - 6.95 MB) (DHS, January 2007)
  4. Respitory Protection Devices (GlobalSecurity.org)
 

US Department of Health & Human Services     
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response National Library of Medicine